Here you will find all sorts of information regarding the history of the European Union.
The historical documents section contains nearly all information about European Integration from 1945 - present available online. It includes (references to) a unique collection of audiovisual fragments, documents, pictures and a dedicated collection about specific themes. This collection is still being annotated and upgraded. It may include references to documents that have yet to be located on-line.
- Academic Info The Cold War – Directory of on-line Resources. Enough to make this page redundant!
- Avalon’s Collection on the Cuban Missile Crisis and its Aftermath
- CNN An on-line site supporting the CNN/BBC series on the Cold War. Once in, go to the Episode-by-Episode link where you will find programme text, interviews, a selection of historical documents (usually four or five) and some video clips and soundbites.
- Cold War Hot Links Site with links from the good to the worthless, from the centralities to the periphery. Hosted by David Price at St. Martins College, Lacey, Washington. Great fun.
- Cold War International History Project This is the site of a project established to exploit newly released data from behind the old iron curtain. Very generous in making research and translations of documents available on-line (go to the Bulletin).
- Cold War Museum Hosts virtual exhibitions on several cold-war themes
- Cold War Policies 1945-1991 Some documents and lecture notes supporting course
- Documents Relating to American Foreign Policy: The Cold War A treasure-trove of materials, in chronological order. Hosted by H-Diplo.
- Foreign Relations of the United States
- History Channel This day in Cold War History Certainly an different way of looking at things… I never knew that Eisenhower gave his “domino theory” speech on my sixth birthday
- National Security Archive shows the results of a team of lawyers using the 'Freedom of Information Act' to extract archives from the hands of a less-than willing government.... but, before being over-judgemental, reflect that in many Western countries, stuff like this is being shreaded right now.
- NATO on-line Library
- NATO Basic Documents
- NATO Summits and Ministerial Communiques from 1945 to the present
- Trachtenberg Website Cold War History contains a collection of documents on "America, Europe, and German Rearmament, August-September 1950"
- Western European Union Key texts from 1984 onwards
History of European Integration
United Nations organisations
Other Regional Organisations
- J. Bodin, Six Books of the Commonwealth (1576, translation 1955)
- T. Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
- J. Locke, Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690)
- C. de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748, translation 1752)
- J.J. Rousseau, The Social Contract (1762, translation)
- J. Althusius, Politica Methodice Digesta (1603, translation)
- The Constitution of the United States
- The Federalist Papers
- The Anti-Federalist papers
- P-J. Proudhon Du principe fédértif (1863, extract)
- P-J. Proudhon Du principe fédértif (1863, complete… in Italian)
- Rerum Novarum (1891)
- Quadragesimo Anno (1931)
- Briand Memorandum (May 1930)
- Phillip Kerr (Lord Lothian) Pacifism is not Enough (1935)
- Phillip Kerr (Lord Lothian) The Ending of Armageddon (1939)
- E. Rossi en A. Spinelli, Il manifesto Ventone (1941)
- E. Rossi en A. Spinelli, Il manifesto Ventone (1941, translation)
- Den Haag Congres (1948, documentation)
- Statute of the Council of Europe (1949)
And some further reading
- A. Bosco, “What is federalism? Towards a general theory of federalism: the theory, the history and its application to European Unification” South Bank European papers 1/96 91996)
- D.J. Eltzar, “Althusius and Federalism as Grand Design” Rechtstheorie, Vol. 14, Beiheft 16 (1997)
- T. Heuglin, “Federalism, subsidiarity and the European Tradition” Paper presented to 2nd ECSA Conference, Federlaism, Subsidiarity and Democracy in the European Union, Brussel, May 1994
- S. Woodward, “The Simple Guide to the Federal Idea” in Ventone, federalism and Politics (1995)
- The Simple Guide to the Federal Idea, by Stephen Woodard (from Ventotene, Federalism and Politics, 1995). A history of the tradition of thought that might have inspired, but certainly legitimised, post-war integration (which, incidently, only enters the picture in the last third of this survey).
- Jean Monnet. His life and work. Prepared by the federalist group Europlace. A brief overview of the life and achievements of the man often regarded as the 'founding father' of the European Community.
- Modern European History. Slide presentation of 13 history lectures (with a stong emphasis on European integration) with selected web-links prepared by Lorraine White (University of Woolongong, Australia).
- Intergovernmental Conferences: an Overview, prepared by the EU. A full survey covering the negotiations of 1950-51, 55-57, 85, 90-91. Strange, though, how the failed negotaitions on the defence community (1952-54) have been airbrushed out of existence.
- The History of Conditional Agenda-setting in European Institutions, by George Tsebelis and Amie Kreppel represents an attempt to make explicit and institutional interprestation of European integration. Research paper of the Centre for the Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine.
- The UK and EU. Reflections on the problem of explanation. By Fred Nash, University of Southampton. Paper presented at the 1995 Annual conference of the British International Studies Association.
- A History of the EU, prepared by the Dutch branch of the European Movement. A short history of the EU reached via the "geschiedenis" button. Only in Dutch.
- History and Challenges, prepared by the US Mission to the EU. Its history is thin, but it gives a fairly solid review of the recent past (from the 1990s).
- Short History of the European Union. An appendix to a World Information Centre on Energy (an anti-nuclear group) report entitled "Agenda 2000: Will it increase nuclear safety in Eastern Europe?". Go here for access to the whole report.
- History of the WEU. An 'official' history of the WEU, a precursor of NATO which lived a twilight existence for most of its history until revived as the potential defence arm of the European Union. Go to WEU history on the left.
- European Union Timelines. The EU's own historical timelines. The yearly chronologies are arranged annually, beginning in 1946. The themes cover institutions, the single market, economic and monetary union, enlargement, citizens' rights and 'the EU in the World'. Very EU-oriented. Gets better the closer you get to the present.
- European Economic and Integration Policy Political Economical Chronology by Prof. Dr. Dr. Björn Paape and Univ.-Prof. Dr. Klaus Dorner (Aachen). It also takes GATT, EFTA etc. into account. Also consultable by themes. Only in German.
- La construction européenne, 1963-1973, prepared by Le Monde. Only in French.
- EU History. Not a bad time-line, prepared by the Irish Times.
- History of the EEC, prepared by the Churchill Society, London.
- The European Union. Pretty basic. Prepared by the Georgia Institute of Technology.
- The History of the European Union and European citizenship By HistoriasigloXX
Briand Plan (May 1930) Often praised as a first step to European integration, but curiously muted when you look at the text (Extract)
Atlantic Conference (August 1941)
A selection of full-text documents put on-line by the Avalon Porject. The Charter outlines the principles for the four freedoms.
Official Photo and photo of the prayer service on-board the ship where the meeting was held.
Atlantic Charter (1941) Provided the foundation of US-UK postwar collaboration, part of which found itself eventually into the arrangements for the European Recovery Program (Full Text)
Archive draft of the Charter
Ventotene Memorandum Towards a Freer and United Europe (1941) Written in prison, provides an early indication of the great federalist Altiero Spinelli’s views of Europe. (Full Text… English translation here)
Anglo-American Mutual Aid Agreement
(February 1942) Establishes the basis of defence collaboration between the two countries, Note Article Seven which commits both countries to non-discriminatory commerce, and which will be used by the US to attack UK cartels. (Full Text)
US President Roosevelt (March 1942, extract) announcing the agreement
The Master Lend-Lease Agreement (February 1942)
Jean Monnet' reflections (August 1943) written whilst with the Free French government in Algiers, on the future of postwar Europe and on the need for a new organisation for heavy industry
Several good photos from the period
Benelux Monetary Agreement (October 1943) signed by the governments-in-exile of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, it provided for mutual trading credits after the War.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agreement (November 1943) makes provision for emergency relief supplies to liberated Europe, and for the repatriation of displaced persons, under UN auspices. It will be Europe’s main source of supplies for two years following the end of the War. (Full text)
Bretton Woods Agreement (July 1944) Created the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund. It also established the rules governing exchange-rate management that prevailed until the system came apart in 1971/73
Conference in session and signature.
Morgenthau Plan (August 1944) Extract
Benelux Customes Union Agreement (September 1944) committing the countries to forming a customs union after the War. Realising that goal proved a little more difficult.
Protocol of the Yalta Conference (March 1945)
PHOTO Conference here and here.
US News report
US President Roosevelt on his return from the Conference
Text Churchill to Truman (May 1945) outlining his worries about the East-West split after the war and using the “iron curtain” phrase that he was to use later in his Fulton speech
The United Nations Charter (June 1945) providing the umbrella over much of the US-inspired post-war institutional architecture and the framework for ensuring World security.
The signatures on the UN Charter and photos of some of the delegates by Ralph Bunche
Protocol of the Potsdam Agreement (August 1945)… and here
The "big tree"
Churchill’s Speech at Fulton Missouri in which, as the leader of British the Conservative opposition party, he coined the phrase the “iron curtain” to describe the division of Europe. Also available here.
Churchill and Truman Churchill and Truman (scroll to near bottom of page)
The introductions and full speech and extract
Churchill greeting crowds Churchill greeting the crowds extract available here and here
Churchill's speech at Zurich University, September 1946
The Hertenstein Programme. (September 1946)
Truman Doctrine (March 1947) and here
Truman (with Marshall)
Marshall Plan and here (1947) offering US economic assistance for European recovery
For photo's try www.archives.gov
Entire Speech and here
Conference in session
European Recovery Program Basic Document 1 (October 1947)
European Recovery and American Aid. A Report by the President’s Committee on Foreign Aid (November 1947) Parts 1 & 2, Part 3
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1947) Down load in WP from here or pdf here. This agreement was to establish the rules of multilateral tariff negotiations, international primary product cartels and customs unions and free trade areas. When the international Trado Organisation failed to materialise, it became the main international trade organisation.
Brussels Treaty (March 1948) or here or here.
The “Treaty of Economic Social and Cultural Cooperation and Collective Self-Defence” was signed by France the UK and the Benelux countries and was originally directed against a resurgent Germany. Some argue that it was less a defence agreement than a decleration of incompetence and a signal for US military help.
European Cooperation Act (April 1948)which gave effect to Marshall Aid by committing the US to economic assistance to Europe and outlining its modalities.
Truman signing the Act
Charter International Trade Organization (March 1948) Extracts.
The ITO as indended as the trade counterpart to the IMF. It was a creation of the US Democratic Administration but fell foul of a protectionist Congress and the indifference of the Republican Eisenhower Administration. Only the GATT agreement survived.
Hague Congress (May 1948) Full verbatim reports, texts and resolutions see also here
The Congress was a show-piece of the various pan-European federalist movements and was attended by over delegates, including many prominent statesmen (mostly out of office). Its texts prepared the evental creation of the Council of Europe.
Conference in session
Vandenberg Resolution (July 1948) US Senate resolution clearing the way for US participation in collective security agreements.
Acheson Speech (April 1949) on the proposed NATO Treaty.
NATO Treaty (April 1949)
This was the "entangling alliance" that many in the US had hoped to avoid, but it formed the basis for Western collevtive security for the duration of the Cold War and beyond.
A collection of photos from signing ceremony
US President Truman at the signature (extract)
Statute of the Council of Europe (May 1949)
The Council of Europe represented the confluence of federalist, parliamentarian ambitions and the need of its founders to obtain the unanimity necessary for its creation. The mixture was to prove an almost fatal one.
Signatures on the Treaty
RADIO audio extract UK Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin at signature of Council of Europe (May 1949)
RADIO audio extract Chuchill celebrates the Council of Europe in Strasbourg (August 1949)
Council of Europe, Full minutes and Decisions of Sessions 1-6 of the Committee of Ministers (August 1949-November 1950)
Truman Statement (September 1949) announcing the successful Soviet testing of an atomic bomb.
Hoffmann Speech (October 1949).
The speech of ECA leader Paul Hoffman to the OEEC came as the half-way point of Marshall Aid approached. It warned that if Europe did not reduce the dollar gap by measures of “ European integration” (a phrase repeatedly used, to hammer home the point) future Congressional requisitions might be less generous.
PHOTO Portrait (and oral history)
NSC-68 (April 1950)
One of the defining documents of the Cold War setting out the US assessment of the effectiveness of a Soviet attack and concluding that, even with the early use of nuclear weapons, most of Western Europe fall to the Russians. The only option was US and European rearmament and the remilitarisation of West Germany.
Schuman Plan (May 1950) in all languages and here in French. The surprise announcement in which France proposed pooling its coal and steel resources with those of Germany under a single High Authority, thereby launching Europe’s first supranational community. Would result in the creation of a six country European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
PHOTO First page of the text of the Schuman Plan
TELEVISION Extract from beginning of speech
Schuman presenting the plans for an ECSC to the Assembly of the Council of Europe (August 1950)
RADIO audio extract here
US Call for German rearmament (August-September 1950) A selection of US archive documents compiled by Marc Trachtenberg. Already with NSC-68, the US authorities had decided on the need to rearm Germany. Using the outbreak of the Korean War as a cover, it now made this policy public.
NATO Council (September 1950) Final Comminqué
RADIO Extract from Konrad Adenauer on German security (October 1950) go to item 10
The Pleven Plan (October 1950), available at the European Navigator (ENA).
RADIO Konrad Adenauer and Kurt von dem Schumacker participating in the Bundesadg debate on a German defence contribution (November 1950)
Schuman address to the Assembly of the Council of Europe on European Defence (November 1950) ALSO in French
RADIO audio extract here
Treaty of Paris (1951) establishing the European Coal and Steel Community. The original treaty can be downloaded from here
RADIO Interview with Konrad Adenauer after the signing
TELEVISION A Compilation of images and words on the Schuman Plan and the treaty signature (loses sound halfway)
TELEVISION French TV Report
Ministerial addresses to the Council of Europe (December 1951)
RADIO audio extract of Italian foreign minister Alcide De Gasperi
RADIO audio extract of Belgian foreign minister Paul-Henri
RADIO audio extract of German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
RADIO Erich Ollenhauer and Franz Joseph Strauss in the EDC debate (February 1952)
The European Defence Community Treaty (May 1952) establishing a European army and, by implication, a common European security and foreign policy.
PHOTO Signatures on the Treaty
Protocol between the EDC and NATO (May 1952)
The Luxembourg Resolution (September 1952), adopted by the foreign member states of the Six. (ENA)
The Beyen Plan for a customs union within ' The Six'. (ENA)
The Draft Treaty for a European Political Community
In French (May 1953) Responding to French and Italian initiatives, the six EDC countries had decided to advance the clauses clauses for restructuring political control over the EDC on a permanent basis. The task of drafting a treaty was entrusted to European parliamentarians constituted in an Ad Hoc Assembly. This highly federalist treaty was the outcome. It was soon to be unraveled in the subsequent IGC and it died the death when the EDC collapsed.
President Eisenhowers’s “Atoms for Peace" speech to UN Assembly (December 1953) proposing making US fissionable material available to the World for peaceful uses. It was later to form the basis for the offer to the Six when they were negotiating the Euratom treaty, thereby robbing the treaty of its main rationale.
RADIO Audio File available here.
Nine Power Conference (September-October 1954) on German rearmament following the failure of the EDC
Paris Agreements (October 1954)
Jean Monnet’s address to the Assembly of the Coal and Steel Community (November 1954)
Gustav Heinemann on the situation after the rejection of the EDC Treaty (January 1955)
BBC report of Germany’s admission to membership of NATO (May 1955)
Speech of Konrad Adenauer and extract here
French Interview with Jean Monet (1955)
The Six at Messina (where is Russel Bretherton for the UK?)
Statement by the US Depertment of State on US views on European integration (January 1957).
March 1957 German chief negotiator Walter Hallstein on the Rome treaties (March 1957)
Treaty of Rome (1957) establishing the European Economic Community. The original treaty can be downloaded from here in all languages and here in French
Euratom Treaty (1957) establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The original treaty can be downloaded from here in all languages and here in French
Benelux treaty on Economic Union (February 1958) Still hoping to shape developments by staying one step ahead, the Benelux countries agree to strengthening their union. They were soon overtaken by events within the EEC.
BBC Report on De Gaulle’s returns to power in France (June 1958)
Collection on the end of the IV Republic
TELEVISION BBC Report On De Gaulle becoming President of the V Republic (January 1959)
TELEVISION French TV Report on the Opening of frontiers with the coming into force of the EEC (January 1959)
Statement given by UK prime minister Harold Macmillan, on the first application for membership of the EEC (July 1961)
EFTA Convention (January 1960) Download pdf here.
Signed by the Seven (the UK, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria and Portugal) this was originally intended to be a vehicle for securing a group-to-group agreement with the EEC. With this function blocked, it aquired a more permanent place in Europe’s institutional achitecture, though scarcely was the ink on the treaty dry than the UK began preparing to apply for EEC membership.
Convention for the OECD (December 1960) replacing the defunct OEEC, and now including the USA and Canada as full members.
Berlin War is built (August 1961)
RADIO US Report
Fouchet Plan (October 1961)
A French initiative to improve political and foreign policy cooperation among the Six EEC countries, outside the supranational framework of the Treaty of Rome. It was vehemently opposed by the Dutch.
RADIO Edward Heath announcing the UK’s application for EEC membership (October 1961) to the House of Commons
De Gaulle’s “non” to British EEC membership (January 1963). Scroll to items 10 and 12. Extracts in French. The French veto torpedoed British hopes for membership and started a debate, even to today, as to the underlying reasons. It was originally opposed by the other five EEC members, but there was little they could do.
RADIO BBC report on the veto
RADIO Prime-minister Harold Macmillan’s radio address (1963) in the aftermath of the French veto of the UK’s membership application, creating the myth that the French veto came not because the negotiations were going to fail but because the were going to succeed.
Franco-German Friendship Treaty (January 1963) and here in French. A curious episode between two traditional enemies, but even more symbolic when seen in connection with the veto of UK EEC membership.
RADIO German radio report
TELEVISION German TV report
PHOTO Signatures on the Treaty
Yaoundé Convention (July 1963)
TELEVISION French TV reflection on 15 years European integration (1965) with some nice archive fragments
Merger treaty (1965)….. The original treaty can be downloaded from here.
This brought to an end the separate institutional existence of the ECSC and Euratom, though not the specific powers in the original treaties.
Proposals on the Common Agricultural Policy, submitted by the Commission to the Council (March 1965).
TELEVISION French President Charles de Gaulle (1965) explains his view of Europe in the wake of the crisis he plunged it into, when the French decided to boycott all community institutions unless its national interests were recognized and the decision to move to majority decision-making were reversed.
Luxembourg Compromise (January 1966). This compromise did indeed allow unanimous decision-making to remain and it also limited the rights of initiative of the Commission, thereby strengthening the role of the Council of Permanent Representatives. It set the decision-making patterns for the nest two decades. It also resolved the dead-lock of agriculture and community funding.
TELEVISION French report on the UK’s second EEC application (November 1966)
De Gaulle Press Conference (May 1967) indicating a preference for UK EEC association rather than membership
RADIO Walter Hallstein on the merger of the European Communities (June 1967)
De Gaulle Press conference (November 1967) vetoing the UK EEC Application
RADIO 1969 BBC profile on Jean Monnet, including extracts of the interview with him on his views on European integration (May 1969)
Davignon Report (October 1970)
Adoption of the Werner Plan (1970) (At ENA, in German and French
TELEVISION French President Georges Pompidou press conference (1971) and views on a suprantional Europe (Extract)
UK, Denmark, Ireland and Norway sign Treaty of Accession (January 1972)
RADIO BBC report including fragments from Prime-minister Edward Heath’s speech.
EEC-EFTA Bilateral trade Agreements (July 1972)
Norwegian referendum (September 1972) rejects EEC membership
MAP Distribution of results
TELEVISION Edward Heath explaining to BBC viewers the impact of the EEC on the UK (December 1992)
European Council holds its first ever meeting in Dublin (March 1975). Major decisions are taken enabling the UK Government to recommend continued membership of the Community.
NOTE From here to end 1984 the Council reports are only available in French. Thereafter they are (at the very least) available in French, English and German.
RADIO BBC report of the governing Labour party’s decision to allow free campaigning in the referendum on continuing EC membership.(April 1975)
Many interesting snippets from the party Conference debate.
Britain’s New Deal in Europe (1975) government pamphlet advising voters to vote for staying in EEC
RADIO Audio extract of BBC report on the “Yes” (67%) vote in the UK referendum on EEC membership (June 1975)
RADIO Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher speaking in favour of EC membership after the referendum
RADIO BBC counterfactual (April 2002) on what woiuld have happened if the referendum had voted “no”.
European Council, Brussels (July 1975) asks the Foreign Affairs Council for a report on the elections of the European Parliament by universal suffrage. The report is to be issued by the end of the year
Summit is held in Rambouillet, France (November 1975). Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan stress the urgent need for economic recovery in the industrialised countries and express their willingness to intensify international cooperation
RADIO Audio extract Helmut Schmidt on the eve of the Rambouillet summit (November 1975) Go to Item 7. A longer extract here
European Council, Rome (December 1975) decides on the direct election of the European Parliament, on passport union and on a single Community representation for the North-South Dialogue.
European Council, Luxembourg (April 1976) holds an initial exchange of views on the Tindemans report on the European Union of January 7
European Council, Brussels (July 1976) agrees on the number and distribution of seats in the Parliament that is to be elected by universal suffrage in 1979 and appoints Roy Jenkins, President of the Commission
Act on General Elections to the European Parliament (September 1976) All languages
European Council, The Hague (November 1976) examines the economic situation and reaffirms commitment to the North-South Dialogue. Issues a statement on the construction of the European Union.
European Council, Copenhagen (April 1978) agrees on several issues relating to direct elections to the European Parliament.
European Council, Bremen (July 1978) agrees a common strategy to achieve higher economic growth in order to reduce unemployment. Propose creating a European Monetary System (EMS) for exchange rate stability.
European Council, Brussels (December 1978) establishes the European Monetary System based on a European currency unit (the ECU) and creates a committee of leading personalities to consider adjustments to institutional mechanisms and procedures in the context of enlargement
RADIO Audio extract Helmut Schmit on the creation of the EMS. Go to Item 14.
European Council, Paris (March 1979) settles March 13 as the date on which the European Monetary System (EMS) is to enter into force. It also discusses the economic and social situation, the common agricultural policy and energy
Margaret Thatcher becomes UK Prime-Minister (May 1979)
TELEVISION BBC Report
TELEVISION French Report of the First direct elections for the European parliament (June 1979)
European Council, Strasbourg (June 1979) agrees to work out a joint energy strategy and examines the problems linked to convergence of economic performances.
Lomé II (October 1979) signed between EEC and 58 ACP countries
European Council, Dublin (November 1979) discusses the convergence of economic performances and budgetary questions, the arrangements for examining Committee of Wise Men's report on adjustments to institutional mechanisms and procedures and the proposals for regulation of agricultural markets.
European Council, Luxembourg (April 1980) discusses the problems linked with convergence and British contribution to the Community budget.
Greece signs Act of Accession (May 1980)
European Council, Venice (June 1980) Issues declarations on the Middle East, the Euro-Arab dialogue, Lebanon and Afghanistan
European Council, Luxembourg (December 1980) grants aids to be granted to Italy for reconstruction after the earthquake, and makes statements on East-West relations, on the Middle East and on the aids to be granted to Poland.
Greece joins EEC (January 1981)
Constantine Karamanlis celebrates Greek Entry
European Council, Maastricht (March 1981) discusses economic and social perspectives
European Council, Luxembourg (June 1981) discusses economic and social perspectives and relations between the Community, the USA and Japan
European Council is held in London (November 1981) discusses communications made by the Commission
European Council, Brussels (March 1982)
Compromise on CAP prices and UK budgetary contribution (May 1982)
European Council Brussels (June 1982)
European Council, Copenhagen (December 1982) establishes priority objectives in the economic and social fields and confirms political engagement in favour of the enlargement.
European Council, Brussels (March 1983) confirms the priority objectives set out at the Copenhagen European Council
European Council, Stuttgart (June 1983) Heads of State or Government and Foreign Ministers sign a Solemn Declaration on the European Union
The Solemn Declaration on European Union
Altiero Spinelli lecture at the European University Institute (June 1983)
Altiero Spinelli presents to the European Parliament a draft treaty establishing the European Union (September 1983)
European Council, Athens (December 1983) Discusses ways to finance the Commission, the budgetary unbalances, the adaptation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the strengthening of the Structural Funds and the development of new Community policies. Fails to solve the problem of the UK budgetary contribution
Draft Treaty on the establishment of the European Union (Spinelli draft) is passed by the European Parliament by a large majority (February 1984)
European Council, Brussels (March 1984) Agreements are reached in a number of areas, however, the vast majority can not be finalised given the disagreements on the calculation and the amount of compensation to be granted to the United Kingdom to reduce its contribution to the Community budget
TELEVISION BBC report
Multilateral EEC-EFTA ministerial meeting, Luxembourg (April 1984)
Second direct elections to the European parliament (June 1984)
European Council, Fontainebleau (June 1984) reaches an agreement on the amount of compensation to be granted to the United Kingdom to reduce its contribution to the Community budget. It brings to an end an eleven year episode that had poisoned UK-EEC relations.
Reactivation of WEU (October 1984). Ministerial communiqué can be downloaded here. For other docs see WEU under collections
European Council, Dublin (December 1984) decides to reinforce the European Monetary System (EMS) and to enhance the role of the ECU.
Third ACP-EEC Convention (December 1984) is signed in Lomé by the 10 Member States of the Community and their 65 partners of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States.
Commission Perspectives for the Common Agricultural Policy (1985)
Greenland’s referendum votes for withdrawal from the EEC (February 1985)
Portugal and Spain sign the Treaty of Accession (March 1985)
European Council, Brussels (March 1985) accepts the adhesion of Spain and Portugal in the Communities and agrees on the Integrated Mediterranean Programmes (IMP) as proposed by the Commission.
The Commission sends to the European Council a White Paper titled "Completing the Internal Market” (June 1985) COM(85)310
The Schengen Agreement (June 1985) on the elimination of border controls is signed by Belgium, Germany, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
European Council, Milan (June 1985) approves the Commission's White Paper on the internal market and decide to set up an IGC to consider an institutional reform
European Council, Luxembourg (December 1985) agrees to amend the Treaty of Rome and to revitalise the process of European integration by drawing up a Single European Act
Portugal and Spain join the EEC (January 1986)
Single European Act (February 1986) establishing…. The original treaty can be downloaded from here in all languages and here in French
TELEVISION French Report
European Council, London (December 1986) discusses fight against terrorism, clandestine immigration and drugs trafficking.
Jacques Delors presents the Single European Act to the European Parliament (February 1987)
Turkey applies for EEC membership (April 1987)
European Council, Brussels (June 1987) examines the various aspects of the communication on the Single Act
Single European Act enters force (July 1987)
WEU Ministerial Council (October 1987) adopts the “Hague platform”
Checchini Report (1988) evaluating the costs of a “non-Europe”
European Council, Brussels (February 1988) reaches agreement onDelors I, a package of measures including CAP reform and cohesion funds. A new frontier for Europe" dossier
Directive (June 1988) on the free circulation of capital within the EEC by July 1990
RADIO UK Prime minister Margaret Thatcher’s speech (June 1988) explaining “I believe in Europe”
European Council, Hannover (June 1988) stresses out the importance of the social aspects of progress towards the objectives of 1992, comments ondangers threatening the environment and appoints a committee to lead to the monetary union. Reappoints Jacques Delors as President of the Commission
Commission adopts a working document on the social dimension of the Single market (14 September 1988)
Margaret Thatcher’s Bruges Speech (September 1988)
Also here. And in French.
RADIO European Commission President Jacuqes Delors addresses the UK Trade Union Council (September 1988) on the social charter - a speech accredited with being instrumental in swinging Labour behind European integration.
European Council, Rhodes (December 1988) assesses of progress towards 1992, emphasising the significance of work on environmental protection and the importance of developing Europe's audiovisual capacity
Delors speech (January 1989) to European Parliament proposes "a new, more structured partnership, with common decision-making and administrative institutions" with the EFTA countries
EFTA Council, Holmenkollen (March 1989) declares EFTA ready to initiate negotiations with the Community leading to "the fullest possible realization of free movement of goods, services, capital and persons, with the aim of creating a dynamic and homogeneous European Economic Space".
Delors Report (April 1989) on the economic and monetary union
Agricultural compromise between EEC and USA (May 1989)
Third direct elections to European Parliament (June 1989)
European Council, Madrid (June 1989) adopts conclusions on economic and monetary union, emphasises the need for balance to be struck between social and economic aspects of a single market and confirms that the environment is a priority issue. Under political cooperation procedures, it also adopts two major declarations on the situation in the Middle East and China
Nigel Lawson resigns (October 1989) as UK Chancellor over Thatchers policy towards the ERM. See here for the attack on him by Opposition Chancellor Godron Brown
Berlin Wall is breached (November 1989)
RADIO US Report
European Council, Strasbourg http://www.europarl.eu.int/summits/strasbourg/default_en.htm (December 1989) decides to convene an IGC before 1990 to draw up amendment to the Treaty for the final stages of economic and monetary union. Heads of State or Government of 11 Member States adopt the Charter of Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (ie not the UK)
Lomë IV (December 1989) signed between EEC and 69 ACP countries
Cyprus applies for EEC membership (April 1990)
Mitterand and Kohl urge political union (April 1990)
European Council, Dublin (June 1990) agrees on a common approach on German unification and on the Community relations with Central and Eastern European countries
EEC-EFTA negotiations on European Economic Area begin (June 1990)
Convention applying the Schengen Agreement (June 1990) and here
RADIO Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the reunification of Germany (July 1990)
Malta applies for EEC membership (July 1990)
German reunification (October 1990
RADIO Speech German President Richard von Weizächer
European Council, Rome (October 1990) finalises the preparation of the two intergovernmental conferences one on Economic and Monetary Union and the other on the aspects of Political Union
Foreign Minister Geoffrey Howe’s resignation speech to the House of Commons (November 1990)
TELEVISION BBC’s report on the resignation of Geoffrey Howe from the UK cabinet (November 1990) on differences over Europe.
TELEVISION BBC report on how Europe was weakening the Thatchers grip on government (November 1990)
TELEVISION BBC Report on Thatcher’s resignation (November 1990)
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe establishes the Organisation for Security and Cooperation (November 1990)
European Council, Rome (December 1990) launches two IGCs, one on Economic and Monetary Union, the other on Political Union.
MacSharry issues two preoposals for CAP reform (1991)
European Council, Luxembourg (June 1991) confirms the need to conduct the proceedings of the two Intergovernmental Conferences, centered on Economic and Monetary Union and on the aspects of Political Union, in parallel on the basis of the draft Treaty prepared by the Presidency.
Sweden applies for EEC membership (July 1991)
Lichtenstein joins EFTA (September 1991)
Kohl and Mitterand decide on the creation of a Eurocorps (October 1991)
TELEVISION BBC report on the UK’s first day of membership of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (October 1991)
EEA talks between EEC and EFTA concluded (October 1991)
Association agreements between EEC and Visegrad countries (November 1991)
European Council, Maastricht (December 1991) reaches an agreement on the draft Treaty on the European Union.
European Court ruling (14 December 1991) reopens EEA agreement by declaring that an EEA Court is incompatible with its own competencies under the Treaty of Rome
Treaty on European Union (February 1992). The original treaty can be downloaded from here and here in French.
RADIO BBC report on the signing of the Maastrict Treaty.
TELEVISION BBC report with extracts of interviews with Major, Kohl and Lubbers
TELEVISION French Report with extracts from Mitterrand and Major
Finland applies for EU membership (March 1992)
Treaty of Oporto (May 1992) Creates European Economic Area
Danish referendum records 50.7% against ratification of Maastricht Treaty (June 1992)
RADIO Interview with Danish foreign minister Uffe Ellemann-Jensen
TELEVISION “Black Wednesday” BBC report on the UK’s departure from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (16 September 1992) after massive speculation against sterling.
RADIO BBC refection on Black Wednesday after ten years
TELEVISION Long after the event The P-M and the Chancellor try to place the blame (September 1999)
French referendum records 51.4% in favour of ratification of Treaty of Maastricht (Spetember 1992)
RADIO BBC Report
European Council, Birmingham (October 1992) adopts a declaration titled "A Community close to its citizens".
Blair House compromise on agriculture between EEC and USA (November 1992)
Norway applies for EEC membership (November 1992)
Swiss referendum rejects EEA membership (December 1992)
RADIO Extract of Helmut Kohl’s defence of the Maastricht Treaty in the Bundestag and reaction of Günter Verheugen, SPD (December 1992)
European Council, Edinburgh (December 1992) offers Denmark special arrangements to to hold a second referendum on the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty. It endorses the Delors II package and agrees that accession negotiations with Austria, Sweden and Finland will start on January 1st.
Single European Act enters force (January 1993)
Danish 56.8% “yes” vote on the Maastricht Treaty (May 1993)
TELEVISION BBC Report of the UK Prime-minister John Major defending the Maastricht Treaty in Parliament (July 1993)
European Council, Copenhagen (June 1993) instructs the Commission to prepare a White Paper on long-term strategy to promote growth, competitiveness and employment; confirms that accession of Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway is to be accomplished by 1995 and it assures associated countries of Central and Eastern Europe that they will become full members as soon as they satisfy the requisite political and economic conditions
EU agrees to reopen talks with US on agriculture and “culture” within GATT (September 1993)
European Council, Brussels (October 1993) issues a declaration to mark the entry into force of the Treaty on the European Union, confirms that the second phase of economic and monetary union will come into effect on 1 January 1994 and it identifies several matters for joint action to be undertaken by the Union under common foreign and security policy. A decision is also taken on the location of several Community offices and agencies.
Treaty of Maastricht enters force (November 1993)
EU-USA compromise within GATT (December 1993)
European Council, Brussels (December 1993) draws up an action plan for the short and medium term, based on the Commission's White Paper on growth, competitiveness and employment, and an initial action plan in the field of justice and home affairs. It decides to convene a conference to conclude a stability pact for Central and Eastern Europe.
European Monetary Institute created in Frankfurt (January 1994)
EEA enters force (January 1994)
Hungary applies for EU membership (April 1994)
Poland applies for EU membership (April 1994)
Fourth direct elections to European parliament (June 1994)
European Council, Corfù (June 1994) The main item is the follow-up to the White Paper on growth, competitiveness and employment. A new partnership and co-operation agreement between the European Communities, the Member States and Russia is signed
Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway sign Treaty of Accession.
Norway 1994 referendum rejects (52.2%) EU membership
MAP Distribution of results and comparison with 1972.
European Council, Essen (December 1994) approves strategy of the White Paper on growth, competitiveness and employment with special reference to measures to combat unemployment and create trans-European networks into operation; agrees strategy to bring the associated countries of Central and Eastern Europe closer to the Community and reiterates its determination to establish an Euro-Mediterranean partnership. It approves the principle of a multi-annual aid programme for Northern Ireland
Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU (January 1995)
RADIO French President Francois Mitterrand speech (January 1995) presents to Parliament his country’s program at the start of its stint of EU Presidency (Extract of text and audio in two parts)
Customs union agreement signed with Turkey (March 1995)
TELEVISION BBC report on the way Europe was undermining Conservative Prime Minister John Major’s leadership (June 1995)
Association agreement signed with the Baltic States (June 1995)
Association agreement signed with Slovenia (June 1995)
European Council, Cannes (June 1995) An overall agreement on external financing including financing arrangements for the eight European Development Fund (EDF) for Africa, Caribbean Pacific (ACP) States is reached. The transition to a single currency by 1 January 1999 is confirmed
Europol Convention signed (July 1995)
European Council, Madrid (December 1995) sets March 29, 1996 as the starting date for the IGC and confirms the introduction of the single currency ("euro") for January 1st, 1999.
Czech Republic applies for EU membership (January 1997)
European Council, Turin (March 1996) opens IGC to revise Maastricht Treaty and lays down guidelines
European Parliament Retrospective database on the 1996 IGC
Berlin agreements on reform of NATO (June 1996) concede principle of a European defence identity
Slovenia applies for EU membership (June 1996)
European Council, Florence (June 1996) establishes objectives and agenda of the IGC, endorses Commission plan for eradicating BSE and resolves the problem of the Court of Justice's authority to interpret the Europol Convention
European Council, Dublin (December 1996) reaches agreement on measures necessary for introduction of the single currency (legal framework, stability pact, new exchange rate mechanism), adopts the Dublin declaration on employment and confirms timetable for the IGC.
RADIO Audio extract of John Major speech (April 1997) asking his party not to “bind his hands”during the up-coming negotiations
European Council, Amsterdam (June 1997) reaches consensus on a draft Treaty. It approves various proposals facilitating the smooth passage to the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union, adopts a resolution on growth and employment and clears the way for launching the enlargement process
Commission proposes CAP reforms within context of Agenda 2000 (July 1997)
TELEVISION BBC report of Labour’s policy towards euro membership (September 1997)
Treaty of Amsterdam (October 1997) signed. Original french version.
TELEVISION BBC Report on the signing.
RADIO Chancellor Heulmut Kohl celebrates opening of the European Central bank in Fankfurt (June 1998) Extract
European Council, Cardiff (June 1998) sets out EU strategy for further economic reform to promote growth, prosperity, jobs and social inclusion. It identifies concrete ways of bringing the Union closer to the people, establishes guidelines and time frame for further negotiations on Agenda 2000 and launches a longer term debate on the Union's further development
Commission Prsident Jacuqes Santer defends Commission in European parliament against charges of fraud and corruption (October 1998)
RADIO BBC Report on the launch of the Euro (January 1999) but not the issue of coins (that would have to wait until 2002)
European Parliament, First Report on Allegations regarding Fraud, Mismanagement and Nepotism in the European Commission (March 1999)
RADIO BBC portrait of EU Commissioner Edith Cresson who was at the centre of the Commission scandal (March 1999)
TELEVISION BBC interview with Jacques Santer after the decision of the Commission to resign en masse (March 1999)
European Council, Berlin (March 1999) reaches overall agreement on Agenda 2000. Prodi asked be the President European Commission and two statements on Kosovo are adopted. Other declarations deal with the Middle East peace process and enlargement, and approve the trade and cooperation agreement with South Africa is approved
Agenda 200: Summary in all languages designed to prepare the EU for the next round of enlargement. See also here.
European Council, Cologne (June 1999) adopts the first EU common strategy, which concerns Russia, and declarations on Kosovo and on the strengthening of European common foreign and security policy. Javier Solana Madariaga appointed High Representative for the CFSP and Secretary-General of the Council. It also adopts the European Employment Pact, sets out the brief of the forthcoming IGC and decides to lay down an EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.
Fifth direct elections to Eurpean parliament (June 1999)
European Council, Tampere (October 1999) reached on a number of guidelines and political priorities, in particular relating to the right of asylum, immigration, access to justice and combating crime. Decisions are taken on the procedures for drafting the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights.
European Council Helsinki, Finland (December 1999) decides to open accession negotiations with Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Malta and to recognise Turkey as an applicant country. It agrees to call an IGC to revise the Treaties in February 2000
Fourth Ministerial EU-APC Conference, Brussels (February 2000) agrees on the plan of action that is to follow the fourth Lomé convention coming to an end by February.
European Council, Lisbon (March 2000) discusses a new strategy to strengthen employment, economic reform and social cohesion as part of a knowledge-based economy.
German foreign minister Joschka Fischer’s speech at Humboldt University (May 2000)
And in German
European Council, Santa Maria da Feira http://www.europarl.eu.int/summits/previous.htm (June 2000) The broad economic policy guidelines adopted; Greece's entry into the euro is approved; a common strategy on the Mediterranean region is adopted; an action plan for the northern dimension in external and cross-border policies of the European Union is endorsed and backing is given to the European Union's anti-drugs action plan
Danish referendum rejects (53%) joining the euro (September 2000)
European Council, Nice (December 2000) confirms that it would like to see the Charter of Fundamental Rights disseminated as widely as possible amongst the Union's citizens. It welcomes accelerating the accession negotiations with the candidate countries and welcomes the progress made in implementing the pre-accession strategy for Turkey. The Council also discusses the European security and defence policy and approves it approves the European Social Agenda. IGC ends with a political agreement on the Treaty of Nice.
Treaty of Nice (February 2001) and the IGC 2000. Archives available in all languages
European Council, Stockholm (March 2001) lays down guidelines in order to achieve sustained growth, stable macro-economic conditions and employment-rate targets
European Council, Gothenburg (June 2001). Agreement is reached on the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations, a strategy for sustainable development is approved, broad economic policy guidelines are endorsed and the key principles for securing the long-term sustainability of pension systems are approved. An EU programme for the prevention of violent conflicts is also approved and advances relating to the Union's northern dimension are also achieved.
UK Prime Minister Tony Blair speech to the European Research Institute (November 2001)
RADIO Audio extract
European Council, Laeken (December 2001). Adopts a declaration on the future of the Union paving the way for major reform and plans a convention to prepare the ground for the forthcoming IGC. It also takes decisions to strengthen Europe's in the fight against terrorism, and to conclude negotiations by the end of 2002 with the candidate countries ready for accession in time to take part in the European Parliament elections in 2004. Declarations are adopted on the operational capability of the common European Security and Defence Policy and on the situation in the Middle East.
European Council, Barcelona (March 2002) focuses on economic, social and environmental issues, and gives priority to the interconnection of the European economies at the level of financial markets and energy, transport and communications networks, urging the speedy adoption of legislation for the opening of markets to this end. Reinforces policies on full employment and the development of a competitive knowledge-based economy.
Second Irish referndum on Nice Treaty gives a “yes” vote (October 2002)
TELEVISION BBC interview with Valery Giscard d’Estaing on the Convention (October 2002)
EU Draft Constitution (October 2002)
TELEVISION BBC report
RADIO Extract from interview with Valery Giscard d’Estaing
The Schuman Declaration is the statement made by the French foreign ministerRobert Schuman on 9 May 1950. It proposed to place French and German production of coal and steel under one common High Authority. This organization would be open to participation of Western European countries. This cooperation was to be designed in such a way as to create common interests between European countries which would lead to gradual political integration, a condition for the pacification of relations between them: “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany”.
Schuman's speech did not fall on deaf ears, as West German Chancellor Adenauer responded swiftly with a positive reply as did the governments of the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg. Within one year, on 18 April 1951, the six founding members signed the Treaty of Paris. It created the European Coal and Steel Community - Europe’s first supranational Community. This organization paved the way for the European Economic Community and subsequently the European Union, which is still run by the innovative type of European institutions conceived in 1950. However, Schuman's efforts did not stop there. He became a great proponent of further integration through a European Defence Community and in 1958 he became the first President of the predecessor to the current European Parliament. When he left office the Parliament bestowed on him the title of ‘Father of Europe’. Because of the significance of his ‘Schuman Declaration’ on 9 May 1950, this day has been designated as ‘Europe Day’. And, in honour of his pioneering work towards a united Europe, the district housing the headquarters of several European Union institutions in Brussels is named after him.
The new Cold War split Europe between two spheres of influence (either side of the Iron Curtain). With the desire not to repeat such destruction, there was a strong momentum towards European co-operation. Winston Churchill, standing next to Robert Schuman, had called for Franco-German reconciliation in a united Europe in a speech in Metz on 14 July 1946. In Zurich, Churchill later called for a "United States of Europe" and, in the meantime, the formation of a "Council of Europe".
Anxious to see greater European economic integration in order to be able to form a block against the Soviet Union, the US used the Marshall Plan to force the adoption of more open markets as a prerequisite to receive aid. The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was founded in 1948 to help coordinate the Marshall Plan. Its guiding principles were:
- promote co-operation between participating countries and their national production programmes for the reconstruction of Europe,
- develop intra-European trade by reducing tariffs and other barriers to the expansion of trade,
- study the feasibility of creating a customs union or free trade area,
- study multi-lateralisation of payments, and
- achieve conditions for better utilisation of labour.
The United States also directly funded prominent European pro-federalists through the government funded American Committee on United Europe.
Under the Monnet Plan of 1946–1950, designed to increase French steel production at the expense of Germany, France had absorbed the Saarland, a center for coal mining, from Germany and turned it into a protectorate. French attempts to detach the industrial region of the Ruhr with its many steel plants and coal mines from Germany met with greater resistance. However, in 1949 the International Authority for the Ruhr was founded. It was an international body that set limits on the production and production capacity in the Ruhr, and controlled distribution of the production, i.e. export or domestic. The organisation was dissolved with the introduction of the common market and the European Coal and Steel Community.
In speeches before the United Nations, Schuman announced that a revitalized Germany must be placed inside a European democracy. The Council of Europe was duly created to provide the great framework of a European union (as it was originally called) in which the European Communities could be inserted. The Council was a herald of these supranational communities to come on the path to a full European integration.
Schuman had stated that the idea of a European Coal and Steel Community dated from before he attended university. Schuman initiated policies in preparation for this major change of European politics while Prime Minister of France (1947–48) and Foreign Minister from 1948 onwards. He spoke about the principles of sharing European resources in a supranational union at the signing of the Statute of the Council of Europe in London, 5 May 1949.
The Declaration had several distinct aims, which it tackled together:
- It marked the birth of Europe as a political entity
- It aimed to make war between Member States impossible
- It encouraged world peace
- It would transform Europe by a 'step by step' process (building through sectoral supranational communities) leading to the unification of Europe, including both East and West Europe separated by the Iron Curtain
- The world's first international anti-cartel agency
- It created a single market across the Community
- This, starting with the coal and steel sector, would revitalise the whole European economy by similar community processes
- It claimed to improve the world economy and of the developing countries, such as those in Africa.
According to Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl, Schuman made a speech arguing that the Schuman Plan was really a continuation of the Monnet Plan, and that it was solely for the sake of supporting French steel exports that they had taken on that task. Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl says this speech was never intended to reach German ears. However, Prof Ritschl cites no sources and the characteristics, objectives and method of the Schuman Plan and the Monnet Plan are quite different as noted above.
Aim and drafting
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The Declaration itself was first drafted by Paul Reuter, Schuman's colleague and the lawyer at the Foreign ministry. It was edited by Jean Monnet and others including Schuman's Directeur de Cabinet, Bernard Clappier. The draft documents of the Declaration have been published by the Jean Monnet Foundation. They show that Reuter pencilled the first draft and Monnet made only minor corrections. Monnet crossed out the word "supranational" — the key concept used by Schuman to describe the new form of European superstate — and replaced it with the ambiguous word "federation". All the key elements—a new organisation of Europe, the supranational innovations, the European Community, the High Authority, fusion of vital interests such as coal and steel, and a single European market and economy — were floated in a series of major speeches given by Schuman in the previous, preparatory years. They include his speeches at the United Nations, at St James's Palace, London at the signing of the Statutes of the Council of Europe and in Brussels, Strasbourg and in North America. The Proposal for a supranational Community was made to the European peoples in the dismal, fearful years of the Cold War as it ruled out another war with Germany. The proposals became a Declaration of French government policy when after two Cabinet discussions it was agreed on 9 May 1950 that France would abide by such a Community establishing European rule.
In his introductory remarks, Schuman revealed that this seemingly technical, social and industrial innovation would have huge political repercussions, not only for European democracy but for bringing democratic liberty to other areas such as Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, to aid the developing countries and for establishing world peace. 'Europe will be born of this, a Europe which is solidly united and constructed around a strong framework,' he said. The declaration's immediate goal was for France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux countries to share strategic resources in order to 'make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible'. The immediate outcome of this initiative was the 18 April 1951 creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), first of the three European Communities and a predecessor of the European Union. At the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 18 April 1951, the six signatory states affirmed in a separate document that this date represented Europe's birth: "By the signature of this Treaty, the participating Parties give proof of their determination to create the first supranational institution and that thus they are laying the true foundation of an organised Europe. This Europe remains open to all countries that are free to choose. We profoundly hope that other countries will join us in our common endeavour."
The Schuman Declaration marked the beginning of post-World War II Franco-German cooperation and the re-integration of West Germany into Western Europe. Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Germany, said of the declaration, "That's our breakthrough." The ECSC was created by the Treaty of Paris and, on 18 April 1951, the leaders of the six member countries (including Schuman) signed the Europe Declaration stating that "marked the true foundation of Europe." The supranational Community as the fruit of the Declaration provided five still-developing European institutions: the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Consultative Committees (representing organised civil society), the Council of Ministers and the European Court of Justice.
The resulting ECSC introduced a common steel and coal market across the member countries with freely set market prices, and without internal import/export duties or subsidies. The success of ECSC led to further steps, foreseen by Schuman, being taken with the creation of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community. The two European Commissions of the latter Rome Treaties and the High Authority merged into a single European Commission in the 1960s. Further intergovernmental, (non-supranational), bodies and areas of activities were created leading to the creation of the European Union in 1993.
The Declaration is viewed as one of the main founding events of the EU. In 1985, during Jacques Delors's tenure as President of the European Commission, the leaders of the European Council met in Milan to decide upon 'national' symbols for the Community. They adopted those chosen by the Council of Europe previously but they changed the date of Europe Day from 5 May to 9 May, in commemoration of the Schuman Declaration. The day is now also known as Schuman Day.
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