What is Freedom?
Matthew Brower • July 4, AD2013
For as long as I can remember, Independence Day celebrations, though filled with family gatherings, fireworks and parades, have also called us to reflect on the profound gift of freedom we enjoy in this country and the sacrifices so many have made to create and preserve a free society. I think it’s safe to say that all too many of us have, at times, taken for granted our freedoms and grown complacent in undertaking the hard work required to cultivate the culture necessary for the flourishing of such a free society.
Change tends to happen gradually, slowly over the generations with a squeak rather than a scream. But the shouts have grown louder now and people of faith must surely hear the clarion call resounding as the August 1st enforcement of the HHS Mandate approaches.
Perhaps we’ve become less vigilant in safeguarding our freedom because, as a society, we have forgotten what freedom truly means and why it is so necessary. Just this past Sunday, we heard from Paul’s Letter to the Galatians where he so clearly sets forth the meaning and purpose of freedom. Paul wrote, “For freedom Christ set us free; so stand firm and do not submit again to the yoke of slavery. . . For you were called for freedom, brothers. But do not use this freedom as an opportunity for the flesh; rather, serve one another through love” (Galatians 5:1, 13).
True freedom is the power and right to do that which is right and good and is an essential requirement of human dignity.
We become increasingly free to the extent that we turn away from sin and choose instead to direct our lives and actions toward God in service to one another doing what we ought rather than merely what we want. It is the duty of civil authorities to protect the rights of all to choose that which is good. However, such protection does not mean granting persons license to do what whatever they choose. The Catechism of the Catholic Church reminds us that “the exercise of freedom does not imply a right to say or do everything” (CCC, 1740). Nevertheless, it appears in this country we are inching ever closer to an understanding of freedom that, in fact, is a perversion of freedom and an effective weapon in the destruction of the very foundations of a free society.
Seemingly, many in western culture embrace a concept of freedom that lacks reference to objective moral truth instead elevating personal autonomy as the greatest good. While it is true that few advocate for a society with no legal boundaries, the movement away from recognition of an objective and knowable truth has set in motion a cultural acceptance of a “freedom” that allows one to do simply what one chooses rather than what is good.
The caveat that such freedom should be limited to the extent that what one does ought not harm another is of limited value when the human person is no longer understood as social by nature and truth has been deemed relative. Freedom then becomes simply defined by the boundaries imposed by those exercising power, not necessarily reflecting a reasoned understanding of the “good” but rather echoing in law what the majority (or powerful minority) value.
Under the umbrella of “freedom” we now allow people to butcher and kill unborn children, two persons of the same sex to “marry” and doctors to assist others to commit suicide. One has to wonder what hard fought legal “rights” will next be secured in the name of freedom. The human imagination can’t even conceive of what will be proposed in coming years. Is this the freedom our founders had in mind and what so many have sacrificed for through the years?
Our Declaration of Independence provides us with a window into the minds of our founders at the birth of our nation. The oft recited words ring in our ears in a special way this time of year: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Is there any question that our founders recognized the existent of a Natural Law and objective truth?
Without the limits imposed by these, freedom can devolve into license and erode the very foundations of a free society. The result is a society that invokes “freedom” as the basis for permitting and advocating for the social weaponry that seeks to destroy authentic freedom. Thus, here we find ourselves at a point in this country where one is “free” to choose abortion but not free to live according to the dictates of one’s faith and conscience having been refused reasonable exemption from the HHS Mandate (to cite but one example).
As is always the case for the Christian, there is hope and the promise of a life lived in the true freedom of Christ. For many the sacrifice has been great. This is true for members of civil society as well as members of the Church. We have countless martyrs who have given their very lives in service of the gospel. Many have speculated that those times may be coming in this country but none of us know to what extent that will prove to be true. However, we do know that there is no substitute for prayer and it is essential for the preservation of freedom and the cultural reform our nation so desperately needs.
Hand in hand with a deepening commitment to prayer is our call to evangelize. We have been entrusted to one another and as Christians have vowed to bring Jesus Christ to the rest of the world. It is a mission for which, by God’s grace, we are well-equipped.
This Independence Day let us take time to thank God for the freedoms we enjoy in this great country of ours and those who have sacrificed greatly to ensure those freedoms. Let us also pray for the grace necessary to ensure that we and those generations who follow will be free to follow Christ in a society that protects authentic freedom.
© 2013. Matthew Brower. All Rights Reserved.
Photography: See our Photographers page.
Filed in: Politics & Legislation, Social Justice • Tags: featured, freedom
About the Author: Matthew BrowerMatthew is a practicing attorney in Montana where he lives with his wife, Miriam. After graduating from the University of Notre Dame with a B.A. in History and Theology, he worked at a large Catholic parish in West Michigan for 7 years where he coordinated various faith formation programs, RCIA and assisted petitioners seeking declarations of nullity. He then attended the Ave Maria School of Law obtaining his Juris Doctor (cum laude) in 2004. He is admitted to practice in Michigan, Minnesota, Montana and the U.S. District Court of Montana. In addition to running his own law practice, he enjoys hiking in Glacier National Park, cheering on the Fighting Irish, and trips back to the Midwest to visit family.
This article is about the genre. For the magazine, see, see Creative Nonfiction (magazine).
Creative nonfiction (also known as literary nonfiction or narrative nonfiction) is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. Creative nonfiction contrasts with other nonfiction, such as academic or technical writing or journalism, which is also rooted in accurate fact, but is not written to entertain based on writing style or florid prose.
Characteristics and definition
For a text to be considered creative nonfiction, it must be factually accurate, and written with attention to literary style and technique. "Ultimately, the primary goal of the creative nonfiction writer is to communicate information, just like a reporter, but to shape it in a way that reads like fiction." Forms within this genre include biography, autobiography, memoir, diary, travel writing, food writing, literary journalism, chronicle, personal essays and other hybridized essays. According to Vivian Gornick, "A memoir is a tale taken from life—that is, from actual, not imagined, occurrences—related by a first-person narrator who is undeniably the writer. Beyond these bare requirements it has the same responsibility as the novel or the short story: to shape a piece of experience so that it moves from a tale of private interest to one with meaning for the disinterested reader." Critic Chris Anderson really claims that the genre can be understood best by splitting it into two subcategories—the personal essay and the journalistic essay—but the genre is currently defined by its lack of established conventions.
Literary critic Barbara Lounsberry—in her book, The Art of Fact—suggests four constitutive characteristics of the genre, the first of which is "Documentable subject matter chosen from the real world as opposed to 'invented' from the writer's mind". By this, she means that the topics and events discussed in the text verifiably exist in the natural world. The second characteristic is "Exhaustive research," which she claims allows writers "novel perspectives on their subjects" and "also permits them to establish the credibility of their narratives through verifiable references in their texts". The third characteristic that Lounsberry claims is crucial in defining the genre is "The scene". She stresses the importance of describing and revivifying the context of events in contrast to the typical journalistic style of objective reportage. The fourth and final feature she suggests is "Fine writing: a literary prose style". "Verifiable subject matter and exhaustive research guarantee the nonfiction side of literary nonfiction; the narrative form and structure disclose the writer's artistry; and finally, its polished language reveals that the goal all along has been literature."
Creative nonfiction may be structured like traditional fiction narratives, as is true of Fenton Johnson's story of love and loss, Geography of the Heart, and Virginia Holman's Rescuing Patty Hearst. When book-length works of creative nonfiction follow a story-like arc, they are sometimes called narrative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction often escapes traditional boundaries of narrative altogether, as happens in the bittersweet banter of Natalia Ginzburg's essay, "He and I", in John McPhee's hypnotic tour of Atlantic City, In Search of Marvin Gardens, and in Ander Monson's playful, experimental essays in Neck-Deep and Other Predicaments.
Creative nonfiction writers have embraced new ways of forming their texts—including online technologies—because the genre leads itself to grand experimentation. Dozens of new journals have sprung up—both in print and online—that feature creative nonfiction prominently in their offerings.
Ethics and accuracy
Writers of creative or narrative non-fiction often discuss the level, and limits, of creative invention in their works, and justify the approaches they have taken to relating true events. Melanie McGrath, whose book Silvertown, an account of her grandmother’s life, is "written in a novelist's idiom", writes in the follow-up, Hopping, that the known facts of her stories are "the canvas on to which I have embroidered. Some of the facts have slipped through the holes—we no longer know them nor have any means of verifying them—and in these cases I have reimagined scenes or reconstructed events in a way I believe reflects the essence of the scene or the event in the minds and hearts of the people who lived through it. ... To my mind this literary tinkering does not alter the more profound truth of the story." This concept of fact vs. fiction is elaborated upon in Brenda Miller and Suzanne Paola's book entitled Tell it Slant. They argue that "...memory itself can be called its own bit of creative nonfiction. We continually—often unconsciously—renovate our memories, shaping them into stories that bring coherence to chaos. Memory has been called the ultimate 'mythmaker'..." as even one's firsthand accounts are unreliable. Duncan Barrett and Nuala Calvi, authors of The Sugar Girls, a novelistic story based on interviews with former sugar-factory workers, make a similar point: "Although we have tried to remain faithful to what our interviewees have told us, at a distance of over half a century many memories are understandably incomplete, and where necessary we have used our own research, and our imaginations, to fill in the gaps. ... However, the essence of the stories related here is true, as they were told to us by those who experienced them at first hand."
In recent years, there have been several well-publicized incidents of memoir writers who exaggerated or fabricated certain facts in their work. For example:
- In 1998, Swiss writer and journalist Daniel Ganzfried revealed that Binjamin Wilkomirski's memoir Fragments: Memories of a Wartime Childhood detailing his experiences as a child survivor of the Holocaust, contained factual inaccuracies.
- The James Frey controversy hit in 2006, when The Smoking Gun website revealed that Frey's memoir, A Million Little Pieces, contained experiences that turned out to be fabrications.
- In 2008, The New York Times featured an article about the memoirist Margaret Seltzer, whose pen name is Margaret B. Jones. Her publisher Riverhead Books canceled the publication of Seltzer's book, Love and Consequences, when it was revealed that Seltzer's story of her alleged experiences growing up as a half-white, half-Native American foster child and Bloods gang member in South Central Los Angeles were fictitious.
Although there have been instances of traditional and literary journalists falsifying their stories, the ethics applied to creative nonfiction are the same as those that apply to journalism. The truth is meant to be upheld, just told in a literary fashion. Essayist John D'Agata explores the issue in his 2012 book The Lifespan of a Fact. It examines the relationship between truth and accuracy, and whether it is appropriate for a writer to substitute one for the other. He and fact-checker Jim Fingal undergo an intense debate about the boundaries of creative nonfiction, or "literary nonfiction".
There is very little published literary criticism of creative nonfiction works, despite the fact that the genre is often published in respected publications such as The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Harper's, and Esquire. A handful of the most widely recognized writers in the genre such as Robert Caro, Gay Talese, Joseph Mitchell, Tom Wolfe, John McPhee, Joan Didion, John Perkins, Ryszard Kapuściński, Helen Garner and Norman Mailer have seen some criticism on their more prominent works. "Critics to date, however, have tended to focus on only one or two of each writer's works, to illustrate particular critical points." These analyses of a few key pieces are hardly in-depth or as comprehensive as the criticism and analyses of their fictional contemporaries. As the popularity of the genre continues to expand, many nonfiction authors and a handful of literary critics are calling for more extensive literary analysis of the genre.
"If, these four features delimit an important art form of our time, a discourse grounded in fact but artful in execution that might be called literary nonfiction, what is needed is serious critical attention of all kinds to this work: formal criticism (both Russian formalism and New Criticism), historical, biographical, cultural, structuralist and deconstructionist, reader-response criticism and feminist (criticism)."
"Nonfiction is no longer the bastard child, the second class citizen; literature is no longer reified, mystified, unavailable. This is the contribution that poststructuralist theory has to make to an understanding of literary nonfiction, since poststructuralist theorists are primarily concerned with how we make meaning and secure authority for claims in meaning of language."
- ^Gutkind, Lee (2007). The Best Creative Nonfiction, Vol. 1. New York: W. W. Norton. pp. xi. ISBN 0-393-33003-6.
- ^Anderson, page ix.
- ^ abLounsberry, Barbara (1990). The art of fact: contemporary artists of nonfiction. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. xiii. ISBN 0-313-26893-2.
- ^Lounsberry, page xiii-xiv
- ^Lounsberry, page xiv-xv
- ^Lounsberry, page xv
- ^Johnson, Fenton (1 June 1997). Geography of the Heart. Scribner. ISBN 978-0671009830.
- ^Holman, Virginia (February 25, 2003). Rescuing Patty Hearst: Memories From a Decade Gone Mad (1st ed.). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0743222853.
- ^McKay, Sinclair (28 April 2002). "Life is Sweets". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
- ^McGrath, Melanie (2009). Hopping. 4th Estate. pp. xiv–xv. ISBN 978-0-00-722365-7.
- ^Barrett and Calvi, Duncan and Nuala (2012). The Sugar Girls. Collins. pp. 337–338. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0.
- ^"Creative Nonfiction, Issue. 38, Spring 2010": 7–13. ISSN 1070-0714.
- ^Daniel Ganzfried, translated from the German by Katherine Quimby Johnson. "Die Geliehene Holocaust-Biographie (The Purloined Holocaust Biography)". Die Weltwoche. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- ^Wyatt, Edward (2006-01-10). "Best-Selling Memoir Draws Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- ^Gutkind, Lee (1997). The Art of Creative Nonfiction: Writing and Selling the Literature of Reality. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-471-11356-5.
- ^ abLounsberry, page xvi
- ^Anderson, Chris (1989). Literary nonfiction: theory, criticism, pedagogy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. xix–x. ISBN 0-8093-1405-3.
Chronological order of publication (oldest first)
- Johnson, E. L.; Wolfe (1975). The New Journalism. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-24315-2.
- Gutkind, Lee (1997). The Art of Creative Nonfiction: Writing and Selling the Literature of Reality. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-11356-5.
- Associated Writing Programs; Forche, Carolyn; Gerard, Philip (2001). Writing Creative Nonfiction: Instruction and Insights from Teachers of the Associated Writing Programs. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 1-884910-50-5.
- Dillard, Annie; Gutkind, Lee (2005). In Fact: The Best of Creative Nonfiction. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-32665-9.
- Gutkind, Lee, ed. (2008). Keep It Real: Everything You Need to Know About Researching and Writing Creative Nonfiction. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06561-9.