Pros Of Illegal Immigration Essay

Illegal Immigration Pros and Cons

Immigration is one of the most controversial topics in the social and political sphere of the US. Illegal immigration, particularly, has been one of the most debated topics. Immigration is a reality in the US and has various pros and cons.
In the quest to live the great American dream, millions of people from all across the globe immigrate to the United States every year. Illegal migrants are people who trespass the international borders and enter the US to earn a better livelihood and in search of greener pastures.

Pros and Cons of Illegal Immigration
Why would people leave their country and illegally enter another country thereby risking their lives? Well, though this is a good question, it does not demand some great comprehension ability to understand that people leave their countries mostly due to economic reasons and unemployment. Illegal migration, in strictest sense, is millions of people, entering and working in another country without the permission of the state/country authorities. Entering the country legally but violating the terms and conditions of the visas and passports and staying there for more than the legally allowed time frame, also accounts to illegal immigration. There are different schools of thought when it comes to debate on this topic.

Illegal Immigration: Pros
According to some people, groups and scholars, following are the pros of illegal immigration.
  • The economy is balanced as the demand for the low wage laborers is always fulfilled.
  • The life conditions of poor immigrants improves thus, providing them the freedom to life and liberty.
  • Various spheres of market open up for customers of diverse income ranges.
  • Illegal immigrants contribute to the tax system by paying sales taxes.
  • Illegal immigrants who have real estate properties, pay real estate taxes.
  • Agents and brokers generate commission from the real estate deals with the immigrants.
  • Illegal immigrants also enjoy the banking services of the country and so they pay interests and dividends to the banks.
  • Financial and auto insurance loans contribute to the national income.
Illegal Immigration: Cons
Here is what people opposed to illegal immigration say about various illegal immigration problems.
  • Judicial problems, in case if immigrants commit a crime and escape the country.
  • Overcrowding and increased burden on public transport, parks and places of public interest.
  • Increased crime rate among the population.
  • Problems related to financial burdens on schools.
  • Concerns of unbalanced ethnic diversity, leading to the dominance of one language or culture.
  • Increased risk of cases related to human trafficking.
  • Increasing population causing burden on the country.
As we can see, the 'illegal immigrants: pros and cons' both are justified when viewed relatively. So, where to demarcate the line for the illegal migrations? There is a world of difference between legal and illegal immigration. Legal immigrants who completely adhere to the rules of the law, are entitled full liberty to pursue their dreams. However, the complexity related to illegal immigrants is immense. No doubts, the immigrants are worthy of sympathy, love and compassion, as most of them immigrate solely to get rid of the shackles of poverty and unemployment. Finding new havens of settlements, that one can feed a family is an inherent nature of human species however, conflicts arise when the country's socio-economic balance and laws come under serious threat. While sympathy and concern for others are essential, laws and rules can't be taken for granted.

One of the facts about illegal migration is that millions of people are immigrating using illegal ways, without being detected or stopped. There must be some weakness in the state system which is failing to counter check paths of illegal immigration. While we have to respect the poor and needy, there is no depth in the argument, that it is fair to break laws if it is for good reasons. US has always been a cradle of dreams and success. Every day millions of dreams are achieved and million others kiss the dust. Since hundreds of years, US has been a home to diverse cultures and races. So, what is the solution to illegal immigration? How can the world community and the US cooperate to decrease the poverty levels and hence, reduce immigration levels? For some, immigration has been a harbinger of success and for some cause of problems. When viewed in the light of 'illegal immigration: pros and cons', some may arrive at partial truth, but there will always be conflict of thoughts. So, does the debate end here? No, it continues...

Immigration has emerged as a top issue in the presidential campaign. The timing is odd since immigration into the United States has slowed sharply.

Issuance of green cards, or permanent resident visas, to new arrivals has been largely flat since 2008, but dipped in 2013 to a six-year low. Illegal immigration is near record lows, with migrant apprehensions along the Southwest border at levels last seen in the 1970s. Temporary work-based visas have risen slightly in recent years but remain below their 2007 peak. Plotting visas and migrant apprehensions as a share of the nation’s working-age population, reinforces the point that immigration is slowing in both absolute and relative terms.   


More on Immigration from the Bush Institute

Receive exclusive access to America’s Advantage: A Handbook on Immigration and Economic Growth


A lack of legislative action on immigration reform, rising border and interior enforcement of immigration laws, and the slow-growing U.S. economy have combined to stem the inflow of immigrant workers. The Mexican case is particularly striking, with demographers suggesting net inflows from Mexico were negative over the five-year period following the Great Recession. Economic stability in Mexico, and slower population growth, has dulled the “push factors” that generated mass emigration for four decades.

Against this backdrop of slowing immigration, it’s surprising that presidential politics are heating up around this issue.

Why we need immigration

Immigration fuels the economy. When immigrants enter the labor force, they increase the productive capacity of the economy and raise GDP. Their incomes rise, but so do those of natives. It’s a phenomenon dubbed the “immigration surplus,” and while a small share of additional GDP accrues to natives — typically 0.2 to 0.4 percent — it still amounts to $36 to $72 billion per year.

In addition to the immigration surplus, immigrants grease the wheels of the labor market by flowing into industries and areas where there is a relative need for workers — where bottlenecks or shortages might otherwise damp growth.

When immigrants enter the labor force, they increase the productive capacity of the economy and raise GDP. Their incomes rise, but so do those of natives. It’s a phenomenon dubbed the “immigration surplus.”

Immigrants are more likely to move than natives, and by relieving these bottlenecks to expansion, immigrants increase the speed limit of the economy. Growth accelerates as slack falls, a desirable scenario that follows from the improved allocation of resources in the economy.

There are many examples — nationally and regionally — of immigrants moving to where the jobs are. During and after World War II, Mexican immigrants were instrumental in alleviating shortages arising from the war effort. During the oil boom of the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was record migration to Texas. In the 1990s, it was the fast-growing South and Mountain West states that received immigrants, many for the first time.

In terms of occupations, immigrants flowed into high-tech jobs during the Internet boom and construction jobs during the 2000s housing boom.

Immigrants grease the wheels of the labor market by flowing into industries and areas where there is a relative need for workers — where bottlenecks or shortages might otherwise damp growth.

Related

In 2013, the George W. Bush Institute honored America's immigrant heritage with an official immigration naturalization ceremony and a half-day event.

Watch the ceremony, featuring remarks by President George W. Bush

In addition, the rise in high-skilled immigration, a pronounced trend since the 1990s, has been linked to innovation, specifically to higher patenting rates among immigrants. Interestingly, greater innovation among immigrants appears to boost it among natives, too. Immigrants innovate more than natives because they are concentrated in STEM occupations where there is lots of R&D and entrepreneurial activity

Forty-four percent of medical scientists are foreign born, for example, as are 42 percent of computer software developers. Immigrant workers are also overrepresented among college professors, engineers, mathematicians, nurses, doctors and dentists, to name a few.

If immigration makes the economy larger, more efficient and productive, what’s the problem? Why do we, as a nation, strictly limit immigration?

Yes, there are downsides

Immigration changes factor prices — it lowers the wages of competing workers, while raising the return to capital and the wages of complementary workers. In other words, the immigration surplus does not accrue equally to everyone. It goes primarily to the owners of capital, which includes business and land-owners and investors.

Complementary workers also benefit. The demand for these workers rises with more immigration. They may be construction supervisors, translators, pharmaceutical reps, or immigration lawyers. And consumers benefit from the lower prices of the goods and services that immigrants produce. But competing workers’ wages fall, at least in the initial transition period as the economy adjusts to the new labor inflow.

Research suggests that previous immigrants suffer more of the adverse wage effects than do natives. Prior immigrants are more like current immigrants.

Research also suggests any negative wage effects are concentrated among low-skilled and not high-skilled workers. Perhaps that is because high-skilled U.S.-born workers are complementary to immigrants to a greater extent than native low-skilled workers, who hold jobs that require less education and fewer language skills.

Overall, we are talking about a plus

Related

Last year, the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and the George W. Bush Institute partnered to release this book containing an in-depth analysis of the correlation between immigration and economic growth.

America's Advantage: A Handbook on Immigration and Economic Growth

Immigration is thus a positive but also disruptive change. There are lots of historical examples of positive yet disruptive economic change. The Industrial Revolution displaced millions of farm workers and resulted in the great urban migrations and the birth of mega-cities to which we now ascribe all kinds of positive attributes, including creativity and innovation and higher wages. 

No great change is without some short-term cost. What is costly in the long-term is preventing market forces from funneling resources to their best use. The adjustment of wages and prices to the changing demand and supply in the economy are the levers of capitalism that direct resources to their best allocation.

Immigration has net benefits. The fact that it has some costs is not a reason to bar it, but rather to manage it. Mechanisms can be found to benefit from immigration’s gains while making up for the losses of some workers. International trade has similar effects, and workers adversely affected by trade are eligible for federal programs such as Trade Adjustment Assistance.

Immigration has net benefits. The fact that it has some costs is not a reason to bar it, but rather to manage it.

International migration is not much different than domestic migration, at least not in terms of economics. We Texans often celebrate Californians and others who move to Texas for the abundant jobs, lower house prices and lesser tax burden. In Texas, we have depended on this inflow of labor from other states to grow as fast as we have — about twice as fast as the nation since 1990. The state has benefited from the migration as have those who moved here.

Would wages have been higher without the inflow of labor? Perhaps temporarily. But wage inflation and skill shortages would have choked off investment and firms would have expanded elsewhere, in places where they could readily find more competitively priced resources.

Immigration is a net positive, even for those who don’t move, but the gains are not distributed equally. The next step for policymakers is to structure immigration reform to take advantage of immigration’s many benefits while mitigating the costs. 

Immigration is a net positive, even for those who don’t move, but the gains are not distributed equally. The next step for policymakers is to structure immigration reform to take advantage of immigration’s many benefits while mitigating the costs. 
The Bush Insttitue hosted a naturalization ceremony honoring 20 new citizens from 12 countries, July 10, 2013. (Grant Miller / George W. Bush Presidential Center)
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Pia OrreniusVice President and Senior Economist at the Dallas Federal Reserve Bank and Fellow at the John Tower Center for Political Studies at Southern Methodist University, Orrenius also is a member of the Bush Institute’s Economic Growth Initiative’s Advisory CounRead bio

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